Research Keywords

  • Cognitive processes
  • Human information processing models
  • Multiple target tracking
  • Visual scanning patterns and their visualization
  • Usability testing
  • Workload analysis
  • Signal detection theory
  • Assistive learning methods
  • Mixed methods

Current Research Applications

Air Traffic Management Systems

  1. This research involves a wide vareity of methods to aid air traffic controllers with managing multiple dynamic aircraft. Eye tracking data analysis is performed to further understand the cognitive process of controllers as they scan aircraft, then identify and solve conflicts between them. This understanding leads to detailed characterization of scanning strategies and more effective training methods.


    The image above on the left shows a zoomed-in area of a realistic simulation of an air traffic radar display. Each green diamond represents an aircraft, the line projecting out represents its travel direction, and the text is a data tag listing the flight number, altitude, and velocity respectively. The image on the right shows a 1.5 minute eye movement scan of an air traffic controller overlaid on a scenario including 20 aircraft. The circled numbers show the order in which the eye fixations were made and the white lines connecting them are rapid movements between fixations. There are many ways to characterize these scanning startegies including categories such as duration, number of comparisons between aircraft, and search patterns.


  2. The image to the left represents a simulated RADAR display of low altitude Enroute airspace. The Green dot shows the eye fixation location of an ATC. The green lines represent saccades of the eye movement. The image on the right represents the directed weighted network (DWN) representation of the AOI fixation sequence data of the ATC. The size and the colour of the nodes (AOIs) are proportional to the number of times the AOIs are visited and to the amount of eye fixation duration that happened on the AOIs respectively (Red means higher fixation duration yellow means lower fixation duration).

    Researchers:
    PI: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Researchers in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at FAA CAMI
    Mr. Saptarshi Mandal
    Mrs. Sarah McClung

  3. In collaboration with the FAA, we have worked on (1) automating the process of mapping eye tracking data to multiple moving objects, and (2) developing eye tracking data visualization methods.

  4. Researchers:
    PI: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Researchers in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at FAA CAMI
    Mr. Saptarshi Mandal

  5. In collaboration with the FAA Center of Excellence (COE), we are working on the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and multimodal training project. The aim to to identify and implement the UDL principles to embrace different learning styles in order to support the training of FAA Academy candidates. In addition, this research investigates the possibiity of applying state-of-the-art technologies such augemented reality, virtual reality, eye tracking, and EEG (brain activity).

  6. Researchers:
    PI: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Co-PIs: Drs. Randa R. Shehab, Lei Ding, and Han Yuan.
    SME: Stephen G. West
    Ms. Lauren N. Yeagle
    Ms. Mattlyn R. Dragoo
    Mr. Josiah Rippetoe
    Mr. Ricardo F. Palma

  7. In collaboration with the FAA Center of Excellence (COE), we are analyzing visual scanning patterns and aircraft control strategies to better support the training of FAA Academy candidates.

  8. Researchers:
    PI: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Co-PI: Dr. John Dyer
    Mr. Saptarshi Mandal
    Mr. Ricardo F. Palma
    Mrs. Sarah N. McClung
    Mr. Kelvin Egwu

Pilot Cockpit Systems

  • This research involves the investigation of pilot behaviors when interacting with cockpit interfaces under fatigue. Human errors and interface usability issues are being investigated. The yellow boxed highlight in the figure below are defined as areas of interest (AOIs) so that we investigate whether the pilots were attending to visually specified events when fatigued.


  • Researchers:
    Lead: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Mr. Salem Naeeri


Weather Forecasting and Alerting Systems

  1. Idenfication of forecasters' cognitive processes when detecting weather hazards. This research is based on a collaborative effort with researchers at NOAA.

  2. Researchers:
    Lead: Dr. Pamela Hiselman
    Dr. Ziho Kang
    Dr. Katie Bowden


  3. Understanding forecasters' situation awareness when predicting flash floods.

  4. Researchers:
    Lead: Dr. Randa Shehab
    Dr. Ziho Kang
    Dr. Jonathan Gourley
    Dr. Elizabeth Argyle

  5. Usability testing of weather alert applications with support from Weather Decision Technologies (WDT).

  6. Researchers:
    Lead: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Mr. Khamaj Abdulrahman

    This research focuses on evaluating the usability and determining the usability issues of mobile weather alert applications. Specifically, we are investigating the Weather Radio application as the sample representative for the weather alert applications.

    The image above on the left is a screen shot of the home screen of the Weather Radio application. The image on the right shows a sample of eye movement scan of one of the application’s users.

Online Healthcare Systems

  • This research involves the usability of softkey when interacting with online healthcare systems using tablets. In addtion, we are investigating the users' comprehension level on the medical answers posted by the doctors. The image depicts the evolution of typing error calculation methologies in the domain of human-computer interaction. We have developed a novel approach to assess such errors.


  • Researchers:
    PI: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Co-PI: Dr. Kwangtaek Kim
    Ms. Jiwon Jeon
    Mr. Lucas Mosoni
    Mrs. Sarah McClung

Enhancing Expert Containment, Decision Making, and Risk Communications: Virtual Reality Offshore Operations Training Infrastructure

  • This research is based on the Deepwater Horizon operations, specifically Gulf BP oil crisis. We are investigating ways for operators to effectively perceive imminent risk and communicate among one another. The figures show the real-time display of indicators before the accident and the analysis of the operators' verbal responses when they were interrogating the designated areas of interest (AOIs 1~7).


  • Researchers:
    PI: Dr. Saeed Salehi
    Co-PIs: Drs. Ziho Kang and Edward Cokely
    Ms. Jiwon Jun
    Mr. Vincent ybarra
    Mr. Raj Kiran

Marketing strategies: Investigation of human behavior when watching Youtube commercials

  • We are investigating humans' visual attention behavior when observing commercials on Youtube. As a very simple example, we are visually attentive to an interesting clip (lower left figure) but are eager to skip a clip if it is does not grasp our attention (lower right figure).


  • Researchers:
    Lead: Dr. Doyle Yoon
    Dr. Ziho Kang
    Mr. Fuwei Sun
    Ms. Morgan Corn

Haptic cue: Predicting mouse or touchpad patterns

  • We have developed methods to use mouse or touchpad patterns as a control method.

  • Researchers:
    Lead: Dr. Ziho Kang
    Mr. Lucas Cezar